Doping and antidoping control in sport Meldonium
Doping (English doping, from the English dope -.. "Nonsense," "intoxicating agent") - a sports term for acceptance of any substances of natural or synthetic origin in order to achieve better athletic performance. Such substances can dramatically raise a short time the activity of the nervous and endocrine systems, muscular strength or even stimulate muscle protein synthesis after stress effects on muscle (eg, steroids) buy meldonium online. A great number of medicines have the status of forbidden for athletes. The modern concept in the fight against doping in elite sport is shown in the World Anti-Doping Code of WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency, founded on the initiative of the International Olympic Committee - IOC). Every year, WADA publishes an updated list of prohibited substances for athletes and new versions of the following standards: "International Standard for Laboratories", "International Standard for Testing" and "International Standard for design of therapeutic exceptions."
Today it is assumed that the use of performance-enhancing drugs - a conscious reception substances unnecessary for the normal functioning of an athlete, or an overdose of medication with the sole purpose - to artificially enhance physical activity and endurance at a sporting event.
The history of doping in sport and to combat it started a long time ago. Substances and methods that enhance human performance, applied long before the first Olympic Games were held in ancient Greece, where a variety of stimulants have been used by athletes to get the best results. There is evidence that even in the III. BC. e. Greek Olympic athletes used substances that improve their results. Members of the ancient Greek Olympic Games believed that sesame seeds increase endurance in running, but the fighters before the fight ten pounds you need to eat the lamb, washed down with wine with strychnine. We also used some medicinal plants, the testes of animals killed, eaten, all sorts of methods of conspiracy and other techniques.
We used stimulants and Babylon and ancient Egypt, who were active hostilities with its neighbors and the need to improve the combat capability of soldiers, and, possible, and athletes. In the future, and Europe has used stimulants in connection with the conquests of Alexander the Great and later - the Roman Empire. Indians of North and South America and has long used a variety of stimulants, mainly of plant origin (Coke, Sarsaparilla).
The word "doping", originally used to refer to the drink, which is South African tribes took during religious rituals, in sports began to be applied for the first time since 1865, the term "doping" used in relation to the athletes who took stimulants during the swimming competitions held in Amsterdam . However, data are available, according to which the word "doping" in the first half of the XIX century. called drugs, which are given to horses participating in the equestrian races held in England.
Stimulant medications have not only helped to win, but also often adversely affected the health of athletes, and sometimes leads to tragedy. In 1886, the competition in cycling was recorded the first death of one of the participants - the Englishman Linton, followed because of his use of performance-enhancing drugs during the race on the route Paris - Bordeaux.
The first international federation, which became actively combat doping, was the International Federation of Athletics. Even in 1928 it banned the use of stimulants. Other federations followed suit. However, a serious result is not given as absent for the doping control.
Widespread use of different stimulant drugs by athletes at the Olympic Games in the beginning of XX century. and later, becoming more frequent in 1950-1960-and the following years. At the Winter Olympics in 1952 cases of the use of amphetamine skaters were noted, which required medical attention. At the XVI Olympic Games in Melbourne (1956), a similar incident occurred with cyclists. It was only after the death during competition in cycling at the Games XVII Olympics (Rome, 1960) as a result of the use of amphetamine Danish racer Kurt Jensen, the International Olympic Committee started the fight against doping. The first test, designed to check whether the athletes are not used banned stimulants been taken in Tokyo in 1964 at the XVIII Olympic Games.
However, even before that (in 1960), the problem of doping has attracted the attention of the Council of Europe: 21 Western European country has adopted a resolution against the use of doping substances in sports.
The loudest and sad story associated with doping, there was a Canadian athlete Ben Johnson, who spent two years in a row at the 1987 World Championships and the Olympic Games 1988 in Seoul superrezultatami surprised the world at a distance of 100 meters. athlete's speed approaching space - 10.2145 m / s or 36.772 km / h, but Johnson was honored for long. A few days later it became known that the doping sample victor found a significant concentration of the anabolic steroid stanozolol. The Canadian was disqualified for two years, his record canceled.